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Key Chinese Concepts

2018-08-30 16:16:00 Source:China Today Author:
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Chinese Dictionary


兼爱

jiān’ài

Universal Love

无差等地相互关爱。“兼爱”一说是墨家的基本主张,它所针对的是儒家所提出的爱有差等原则。“兼爱”强调每个人都应像爱自己一样爱他人,像爱自己的家人、国人一样爱别人的家人、爱别国的人,那么人与人之间就会彼此相爱。这种相爱是不分亲疏远近、尊卑上下的,是平等的、没有差别的爱。如果做到兼相爱,就能够避免人与人、家与家、国与国之间的相互攻 伐、侵害,进而实现互利。

Universal love, equal affection for all individuals, is a basic concept of the Mohist school of thought, as opposed to the principle of differentiated love advocated by the Confucian School. Universal love emphasizes that you should love others as you love yourself, and love others’ relatives and people of other states as you love your own so that all people would love one another equally. This principle of affection has no regard for blood ties or social status. It is an affection that is exercised equally without differentiating between individuals, families, or nations. If such a principle could be realized, we could avoid conflicts between persons, clans, or nations and bring equal benefit to all.

引例 Citations:

◎天下兼相爱则治,交相恶则乱。(《墨子·兼爱上》)

(天下之人彼此相爱则社会安定有序,相互厌恶则社会纷乱不安。)

Universal love will bring peace and order to the world while mutual animosity can only throw the world into disorder. (Mozi)


 


非攻

fēiɡōnɡ

Denouncing Unjust Wars

反对、禁止不义的战争。“非攻”是墨家的基本主张之一。墨家认为,违反道义的攻伐战争有着严重危害。不仅被攻伐的国家遭到极大破坏,发动战争的国家也会因战争造成大量的人民伤亡及财产损失,因此应该禁止不义的战争。墨家也通过实际的行动反对并阻止国家间的相互攻伐,并研究了用以防御攻伐的战术、器具。

Opposition to unjust warfare is one of the basic concepts in the Mohist school of thought. It regards immoral and aggressive wars as acutely harmful to society. Not only does the country being attacked suffer great damage, the people of the country that starts the war also suffer serious casualties and losses. Therefore, Mohists held that unjust wars should be prohibited. They took specific measures to prevent aggressive wars between nations, and conducted research into defensive tactics and armaments.

引例 Citations:

◎今欲为仁义,求为上士,尚欲中圣王之道,下欲中国家百姓之利,故当若非攻之为说,而将不可不察者此也。(《墨子·非攻下》)

(现在想要施行仁义,力求成为上等士人,上要符合圣王之道,下要有利于国家百姓的利益,那么对于非攻之说,就不可不审察了。)

 

If one wishes to be humane and just and become a gentleman with high moral standards, he must both observe the way of the sage kings, and advance the interests of the state and the people. In order to achieve these goals, the principle of prohibiting unjust wars cannot be disregarded. (Mozi)

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