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Key Chinese Concepts

2018-06-06 10:54:00 Source:China Today Author:
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诗言志

shī yán zhì

Poetry Expresses Aspirations.

诗歌表达作者内心的志向。“志”指诗歌作品中所表达的作者的内心志向、思想,兼及情感因素。“诗言志”最先见于儒家经典《尚书·尧典》,是中国诗论的“开山纲领”(朱自清语),经过历代诗论家的演绎,其蕴涵不断得以丰富,并由此确立了中国文论关于文学特征的基本观念。

A poem expresses aspirations in one’s heart. Zhi (志) here means the author’s aspirations, emotions, and thoughts. The concept of “poetry expressing aspirations,” first seen in the Confucian classic The Book of Documents, was hailed by Zhu Ziqing as the “manifesto” of Chinese poetry. Enriched by poetry critics through the generations, it was later established as a basic concept in Chinese literary criticism.

引例 Citations:

◎诗言志,歌永言。(《尚书·尧典》)

(诗是表达内心志向的,歌是用语言来吟唱的。)

Poems express aspirations deep in one’s heart, whereas songs are verses for chanting. (The Book of Documents)

◎诗者,志之所之也,在心为志,发言为诗。(《诗大序》)

( 诗是内心志向所生成的,在心中为志,形成言语就是诗。)

Poems come from aspirations. An aspiration in heart is an aspiration; an aspiration in words is a poem. (Preface to The Book of Songs)

 

 

 

诗缘情

shī yuán qíng

Poetry Springs from Emotions.

诗歌缘于诗人内心的情感。西晋陆机《文赋》提出,诗人情动于心,而后才有诗歌创作。“诗缘情”说与“诗言志”说互为补充,强调文学的抒情性与审美特征,表现出魏晋时代文学观念的变迁。因此,“诗缘情”也成为中国古代关于诗歌与文学本质看法的另一代表观点。

Poems originate from the poet’s heart-felt feelings. Lu Ji of the Western Jin Dynasty said in The Art of Writing that a poet must have a surge of feeling deep in his heart before he could create a poem. This view, complementing the concept of “poetry expressing aspirations,” stresses the lyrical and aesthetic nature of literary works and echoes the evolution of literary tastes during the Wei and Jin dynasties. “Poetry springing from emotions” represents another viewpoint on the nature of poetry and literature in ancient China.

引例 Citations:

◎诗缘情而绮靡。(陆机《文赋》)

(诗歌源于情感因而形式华丽好看。)

Poetry, springing from emotions, reads beautifully in its form of expression. (Lu Ji: The Art of Writing)

◎人禀七情,应物斯感,感物吟志,莫非自然。(刘勰《文心雕龙·明诗》)

(人禀受了各种情感,受外物刺激而心有所感,心有所感而吟咏情志,所有的诗歌都出于自然情感。)

Everyone has diverse feelings, and he expresses his feelings and aspirations in a poetical way when he is stimulated by the external world and his heart is touched. All poems come from natural emotions. (Liu Xie: Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature)v

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